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  1. 37 Common Surgical Procedures

    Common Surgical Procedures
    Li Ern Chen
    Bradley D. Freeman
    This chapter reviews concepts, indications, and technical aspects of procedures commonly performed in hospitalized surgical patients, focusing on central venous catheterization, thoracic and peritoneal drainage procedures, airway access, and laparoscopy.
    Basic rules govern the successful performance of surgical procedures: (1) Necessary equipment, supplies, lighting, and assistance should be available ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  2. 36 Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgery

    Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgery
    Rebecca A. Brooks
    Premal H. Thaker
    Obstetric and Gynecologic Disorders
    I. Vaginal Bleeding
    Vaginal Bleeding to an abnormal degree may result from a variety of causes. A thorough history including pattern and intensity of bleeding and physical examination is sufficient to determine the etiology. A pregnancy test must be performed in all women of reproductive age. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) should be drawn to determine whether ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  3. 35 Urologic Surgery

    Urologic Surgery
    Tyler L. Christensen
    Arnold D. Bullock
    Evaluation of Hematuria
    I. Hematuria
    Hematuria is the hallmark of disease in the genitourinary tract and warrants a thorough investigation. Pain associated with hematuria may suggest a benign etiology such as cystitis or urinary calculi. However, painless hematuria should be regarded as secondary to a tumor until proven otherwise.
    • All of the following warrant a hematuria workup:

      • Any episode
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  4. 34 Orthopedic Injuries

    Orthopedic Injuries
    Jason Robison
    William M. Ricci
    Treatment of Orthopedic Injuries
    I. Initial Assessment
    A. Priorities of management
    Assessment and management of ABCs (airway, breathing, and circulation) take precedence over extremity injuries. Multisystem-injured patients benefit from early aggressive treatment of extremity and pelvic trauma.
    B. History
    In addition to standard medical history, the mechanism of injury, especially the relative energy ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  5. 33 Neurosurgical Emergencies

    Neurosurgical Emergencies
    Daniel Refai
    James Johnston
    Michael R. Chicoine
    Neurosurgical emergencies involve a broad spectrum of illness, including traumatic injury to the head and spine. Several nontraumatic settings also require emergent intervention. Among these are intracranial hemorrhage, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), spinal cord compression, and infections.
    Neurosurgical Trauma
    I. Intracranial Trauma
    A. Evaluation
    Initial management of ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  6. 32 Pediatric Surgery

    Pediatric Surgery
    Trudie A. Goers
    Patrick A. Dillon
    Surgery involving children is predicated on the fundamental facts that infants and children differ from adults in anatomy, physiology, and particularly their reaction to operative trauma and that the necessary adjustments of surgical procedures are not merely matters of scale. Although some disease processes are managed similar to those in adults, this chapter addresses the more pediatric-specific surgical issues.
    I. Fluid, ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  7. 31 General Thoracic Surgery

    General Thoracic Surgery
    Felix G. Fernandez
    Richard J. Battafarano
    Thoracic surgery encompasses the management of both benign and malignant conditions of the esophagus, lung, pleura, and mediastinum. In this chapter, we focus on the systematic evaluation and treatment of the most common conditions. Disease processes of the esophagus are discussed in Chapter 8.
    I. Lung Cancer
    Cancer of the lung remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Approximately ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  8. 30 Cardiac Surgery

    Cardiac Surgery
    Spencer J. Melby
    Nader Moazami
    Ralph J. Damiano Jr.
    This chapter focuses on the adult patient undergoing common cardiac operations, particularly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve replacement. It also discusses the surgical treatment of heart failure and arrhythmia.
    I. Anatomy
    A. Coronary arteries
    The left and right coronary arteries arise from within the sinuses of Valsalva just distal to the right and left coronary cusps of ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  9. 29 Plastic and Hand Surgery

    Plastic and Hand Surgery
    Marissa J. Tenenbaum
    Jason M. Rovak
    Susan E. Mackinnon
    Plastic surgeons are charged with the broad task of maximizing form and function in the setting of trauma, burn, congenital defects, postoncologic defects, general reconstruction, and elective cosmetic improvements. Operative sites may be from head to toe, with subspecialties including pediatrics, hand surgery, craniofacial surgery, peripheral nerve surgery, microsurgery, and aesthetic surgery. ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
  10. 28 Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

    Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
    Jason T. Rich
    Bruce H. Haughey
    I. Introduction
    Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (OHNS) is one of a few anatomically defined medical specialties. In addition, there are a significant number of structures concentrated within the head and neck. These factors make OHNS a challenging and exciting field, full of diverse systems and diseases. This chapter provides a brief description of selected diseases thought to be useful to the general ...
    Chuyên mục
    Washington M.of Surgery
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