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  1. Chapter 164. Leptospirosis

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 164. Leptospirosis
    Leptospirosis: Introduction
    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global importance, as illustrated by recent large outbreaks in Asia, Central and South America, and the United States. The disease is caused by pathogenic leptospires and is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from inapparent infection to fulminant, fatal disease. In its mild form, leptospirosis may present as an ...
  2. Chapter 163. Endemic Treponematoses

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 163. Endemic Treponematoses
    Endemic Treponematoses: Introduction
    The endemic, or nonvenereal, treponematoses are bacterial infections caused by close relatives of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiologic agent of venereal syphilis (Chap. 162). Yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis are distinguished from venereal syphilis by mode of transmission, age of acquisition, geographic distribution, and clinical features. These infections are ...
  3. Chapter 162. Syphilis

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 162. Syphilis
    Definition
    Syphilis, a chronic systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, is usually sexually transmitted and is characterized by episodes of active disease interrupted by periods of latency. After an incubation period averaging 2–6 weeks, a primary lesion appears, often associated with regional lymphadenopathy. The secondary stage, associated with generalized mucocutaneous lesions and generalized lymphadenopathy, ...
  4. Chapter 161. Antimycobacterial Agents

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 161. Antimycobacterial Agents
    Table 161-1 Use of First-Line Antimycobacterial Agents in Patients with Renal or Hepatic Disease and in Pregnant Women
    ...
  5. Chapter 160. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 160. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Introduction
    The designation nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) encompasses the mycobacterial species other than organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and M. leprae. The NTM are distributed widely in the environment, are typically acquired from environmental sources, and therefore are also referred to as environmental mycobacteria. Most species are less virulent for humans ...
  6. Chapter 159. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 159. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
    Leprosy (Hansen's Disease): Introduction
    Leprosy, first described in ancient Indian texts from the sixth century B.C., is a nonfatal, chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, whose clinical manifestations are largely confined to the skin, peripheral nervous system, upper respiratory tract, eyes, and testes. The unique tropism of M. leprae for peripheral nerves (from large nerve trunks to microscopic ...
  7. Chapter 158. Tuberculosis

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 158. Tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis: Introduction
    Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. This disease, which is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, usually affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one-third of cases. If properly treated, tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible strains is curable in virtually all cases. If untreated, the disease ...
  8. Chapter 157. Infections Due to Mixed Anaerobic Organisms

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 157. Infections Due to Mixed Anaerobic Organisms
    Definitions
    Anaerobic bacteria are organisms that require reduced oxygen tension for growth, failing to grow on the surface of solid media in 10% CO2 in air. (In contrast, microaerophilic bacteria can grow in an atmosphere of 10% CO2 in air or under anaerobic or aerobic conditions, although they grow best in the presence of only a small amount of atmospheric oxygen, and facultative bacteria can ...
  9. Chapter 156. Actinomycosis

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 156. Actinomycosis
    Actinomycosis: Introduction
    Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of the genus Actinomyces, that colonize the mouth, colon, and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection at virtually any site in the body. In vivo growth of actinomycetes usually results in the formation of characteristic clumps called grains or sulfur granules. The clinical ...
  10. Chapter 155. Nocardiosis

    Harrison's Internal Medicine > Chapter 155. Nocardiosis
    Nocardiosis: Introduction
    Nocardiosis refers to disease caused by bacteria of the genus Nocardia. Pneumonia and disseminated disease are most common. Other forms include cellulitis, lymphocutaneous syndrome, actinomycetoma, and keratitis.
    Microbiology
    Nocardiae are saprophytic aerobic actinomycetes and are common worldwide in soil, where they contribute to decay of organic matter. Nocardial taxonomy is complex and ...